Pages

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

Python and Elevation Data: ASCII Grid Files

Editor's Note: This multi-part series is based on Chapter 7 of "Learning Geospatial Analysis with Python" and republished with permission from Packt Publishing. This series will cover using Python to work with elevation data.  


Introduction

Elevation data is one of the most fascinating types of geospatial data. It represents many different types of
Image courtesy of the
US National Park Service
data sources and formats. Elevation data can display properties of both vector and raster data resulting in unique data products. Elevation data can serve the following purposes:
  • Terrain visualization
  • Land cover classification
  • Hydrology modelling
  • Transportation routing
  • Feature Extraction
You can't perform all of these options with both raster and vector data but because elevation data is three dimensional, containing x, y, and z coordinates, you can often get more out of these data than any other type.

In this chapter, we're going to learn to read and write elevation data in both raster and vector point formats. We'll also create some derivative products. The topics we'll cover are:
  • ASCII Grid elevation data files
  • Shaded-relief images
  • Elevation contours
  • Gridding LIDAR data
  • Creating a 3D mesh
Editor's Note:  This post will cover ASCII Grid elevation data files.  Each bullet above will be a separate post in this series. Instructions for installing GDAL and its Python bindings can be found here: http://goo.gl/WVPd1n.  On most linux systems you can run: apt-get install python-gdal. In my book I provide detailed instructions and links for Windows/Mac/Linux.  On all platforms PIL and Numpy can be installed using Python SetupTools through easy_install or pip.

For most of this chapter we'll use ASCII Grid files or ASCIIGRID . These files are a type of raster data usually associated with elevation data. This grid format stores data as text in equally sized square rows and columns with a simple header. Each cell in a row/column stores a single numeric value, which can represent some feature of terrain, such as elevation, slope, or flow direction. The simplicity makes it an easy-to-use, platform independent raster format. This format is described in the ASCII GRIDS section in Chapter 2, Geospatial Data.

Throughout the book we've relied on GDAL and to some extent PIL to read and write geospatial raster data including the gdalnumeric module to load raster data into NumPy arrays. But ASCIIGRID allows us to read and write rasters using only Python or even NumPy.
Tip: As a reminder, some elevation data sets use image formats to store elevation data. Most image formats only support 8-bit values ranging between 0-255; however, some formats, including TIFF, can store larger values. Geospatial software can typically display these data sets; however, traditional image software and libraries usually do not. For simplicity in this chapter, we'll stick to the ASCIIGRID format for data, which is both human and machine readable, as well as being widely supported.

Reading grids

NumPy has the ability to read the ASCIIGRID format directly using its loadtxt() method designed to read arrays from text files. The first six lines consist of the header, which are not part of the array. The following lines are a sample of a grid header:

ncols        250
nrows        250
xllcorner    277750.0
yllcorner    6122250.0
cellsize     1.0
NODATA_value      -9999

Line 1 contains the number of columns in the grid, which is synonymous with the x axis. Line 2 represents the y axis described as a number of rows. Line 3 represents the x coordinate of the lower left corner, which is the minimum x value. Line 4 is the corresponding minimum y value in the lower left corner of the grid. Line 5 is the cell size or resolution of the raster. Because the cells are square, only one size value is needed, as opposed to the separate x and y resolution values in most geospatial rasters. The fifth line is no data value, which is a number assigned to any cell for which a value is not provided. Geospatial software ignores these cells for calculations and often allows special display settings for it, such as coloring them black. The value -9999 is a common no data placeholder value used in the industry, which is easy to detect in software. In some examples, we'll use the number zero; however, zero can often also be a valid data value.

The numpy.loadtxt() method includes an argument called skiprows , which allows you to specify a number of lines in the file to be skipped before reading array values. To try this technique out you can download a sample grid file called myGrid.asc at the following URL:

https://geospatialpython.googlecode.com/files/myGrid.asc

So for myGrid.asc we would use the following code:

myArray  = numpy.loadtxt("myGrid.asc", skiprows=6)

This line results in the variable myArray containing a numpy array derived from the ASCIIGRID file myGrid.asc. The ASC file name extension is used by the ASCIIGRID format. This code works great but there's one problem. NumPy allows us to skip the header but not keep it. And we need to keep it to have a spatial reference for our data for processing, as well as for saving this grid or creating a new one.

To solve this problem we'll use Python's built-in linecache module to grab the header. We could open the file, loop through the lines, store each one in a variable, and then close the file. But linecache reduces the solution to a single line. The following line reads the first line in the file into a variable called line 1:

import linecache
line1 = linecache.getline("myGrid.asc", 1)

In the examples in this chapter we'll use this technique to create a simple header processor that can parse these headers into python variables in just a few lines.

Writing grids

Writing grids in Numpy is just as easy as reading them. We use the corresponding numpy.savetxt() function to save a grid to a text file. The only catch is, we must build and add the six lines of header information before we dump the array to the file. This process is slightly different depending on if you are using NumPy versions before 1.7 or after. In either case, you build the header as a string first. If you are using NumPy 1.7 or later, the savetext() method has an optional argument called header, which lets you specify a string as an argument. You can quickly check your NumPy version from the command line using the following command:

python -c "import numpy;print numpy.__version__" 
1.6.1

The backwards compatible method is to open a file, write the header then dump the array. Here is a sample of the Version 1.7 approach to save an array called myArray to an ASCIIGRID file called myGrid.asc:


header = "ncols     %s\n" % myArray.shape[1]
header += "nrows    %s\n" % myArray.shape[0]
header += "xllcorner 277750.0\n"
header += "yllcorner 6122250.0\n"
header += "cellsize 1.0\n"
header += "NODATA_value -9999\n"

numpy.savetxt("myGrid.asc", myArray, \
header=header, fmt="%1.2f")

We make use of python format strings, which allow you to put placeholders in a string to format python objects to be inserted. The %s format variable turns whatever object you reference into a string. In this case we are referencing the number of columns and rows in the array. In NumPy, an array has both a size and shape property. The size property returns an integer for the number of values in the array. The shape property returns a tuple with the number of rows and columns, respectively. So, in the preceding example, we use the shape property tuple to add the row and column counts to the header of our ASCII Grid. Notice we also add a trailing newline character for each line (\n). There is no reason to change the x and y values, cell size, or nodata value unless we altered them in the script. The savetxt() method also has a fmt argument, which allows you to use Python format strings to specify how the array values are written. In this case the %1.2f value specifies floats with at least one number and no more than two decimal places.

The backwards compatible version for NumPy, before 1.6, builds the header string in the same way but creates the file handle first:

import numpy
f = open("myGrid.asc", "w")
f.write(header)
numpy.savetxt(f, myArray, fmt="%1.2f")
f.close()

In the examples in this chapter, we'll introduce Python with an approach for writing files, which provides more graceful file management by ensuring files are closed properly. If any exceptions are thrown, the file is still closed cleanly:

with open("myGrid.asc", "w") as f:
    f.write(header)
    numpy.savetxt(f, myArray, fmt="%1.2f")

As you'll see in the upcoming examples, this ability to produce valid geospatial data files using only NumPy is quite powerful. In the next couple of examples we'll be using an ASCIIGRID Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of a mountainous area near Vancouver, British Columbia in Canada. You can download this sample as a ZIP file at the following URL:

https://geospatialpython.googlecode.com/files/dem.zip

The following image is the raw DEM colorized using QGIS with a color ramp that makes lower elevation values dark blue and higher elevation values bright red:

While we can conceptually understand the data this way, it is not an intuitive way to visualize the data. Let's see if we can do better.  In the next post we'll create a shaded relief image using this data.

303 comments:

  1. Thanks - this worked great for asc files. Any suggestions for modifications for using the DEM format used by the national elevation dataset?

    ReplyDelete
  2. This is great, you are good, i like your post and i still waiting our next post
    Bandar Ceme

    ReplyDelete
  3. Thanks, guys you always provide useful information through your articles
    Agen Domino

    ReplyDelete
  4. Really a nice content i am going to bookmark your site thanks
    Domino QQ

    ReplyDelete
  5. Your blog information is nice and friendly. This post is very helpful for me. Thank for post.
    Judi Ceme

    ReplyDelete
  6. Property rates in Hyderabad @ http://www.sahiba.co.in/rate.html

    ReplyDelete
  7. property rates in Chennai @ http://www.sagari.co.in/rate.html

    ReplyDelete
  8. Rates of property Mumbai @ http://www.saesha.co.in/rate.html

    ReplyDelete
  9. Property rates in Nashik @ http://www.sadhna.co.in/rate.html

    ReplyDelete
  10. Apartment rates in Mumbai @ http://www.sachita.co.in/rate.html

    ReplyDelete
  11. Rates of plots in Nashik @ http://www.sabita.co.in/rate.html

    ReplyDelete
  12. Property price in Ludhiana @ http://www.saanjh.co.in/rate.html

    ReplyDelete
  13. Latest property rates Noida @ http://www.saachisingh.co.in/rate.html

    ReplyDelete
  14. property rates in Ludhiana @ http://www.ruhijosh.co.in/rate.html

    ReplyDelete
  15. Rates of property in Noida @ http://www.roshnikhanna.co.in/rate.html

    ReplyDelete
  16. https://jualobatdewasa.net/category/obat-pembesar-penis/http://obatperbesarpenis.com/

    ReplyDelete
  17. https://jualobatdewasa.net/category/obat-pembesar-penis/

    ReplyDelete
  18. Thank you for your post, I look for such article along time. myself very happy to read it because it can give me more insight,thanks.
    dewa poker

    ReplyDelete
  19. Thanks you for sharing your thoughts.I truly appreciate your post thank you once again.
    bandarq
    bandarq
    taruhan bola
    bandar bola
    bandar togel
    agen togel
    prediksi togel

    ReplyDelete
  20. Sinidomino.net

    temen-temen mau memilih menjadi pemain atau bandar?

    Di Sinidomino teman-teman bisa memilih menjadi pemain atau bandar ?
    ada 7 jenis permainan yang bisa temen-temen mainkan hanya dengan1 user id

    Temen-temen juga bisa menikmati permainan ini melalui android
    dan dimanapun atau kapanpun temen-temen bisa menikmati permainan ini
    seru kan?

    Hanya dengan minimal deposit 20.000 dan penarikan dana 20.000
    transaksi akan diproses dengan cepat

    dapatkan kemenangan puluhan juta rupiah bersama ribuan player lainnya di permainan ini
    dengan kemudahan bertransaksi yang didukung oleh perbankan lokal

    -BCA
    -BNI
    -MANDIRI
    -BRI

    Daftar sekarang , klik disini ya

    -www.kartusini.com
    -http://goo.gl/hz1eC3

    Dengan bantuan costumer service yang ramah dan profesional
    untuk info lebih lamjut silakan hubungi :
    -PIN BBM : D61E3506
    -LINE : +6285598249684
    -www.sinidomino.ccom (official website)
    -WHATAPP : +6288598249684

    Semoga beruntung ya
    Salam hoki sinidomino.net

    ReplyDelete
  21. Good article, I've seen many articles today, but only this article is of interest to me, thanks poker online

    ReplyDelete

  22. I like your all post. You have done really good work. Thank you for the information you provide, it helped me a lot.
    I hope to have many more entries or so from you.
    Poker online uang asli

    Judi poker terpercaya

    promo bonus new member

    poker jackpot terbesar

    situs poker online

    poker online terpercaya

    judi online

    domino online

    judi poker

    jackpot terbesar

    ReplyDelete

  23. Kami adalah agen judi online yang terpercaya di indonesia.Kami menyediakan beberapa macam permainan
    untuk yang hobi bermain Judi online Poker
    dan pasang angka di Bandar togel
    Untuk yang gemar Taruhan bola
    kami juga menyediakan website nya.

    ReplyDelete
  24. Are you looking to cash into a checking account, the total amount usually cannot be immediately accessed; there may be a waiting period for the check to clear? We are the company http://www.unitedcheckcashing.com providing you the best services about http://www.unitedcheckcashing.com within a short period. In USA you may find us everywhere, every city and 24/7. We really love to serve you the best things with 100% satisfactions. check cashing

    ReplyDelete
  25. This is very educating post, thanks for sharing with us.
    Tips Menang AduQ
    Tips Bermain AduQ

    ReplyDelete
  26. https://situs-ikutqq.blogspot.com/
    https://ikutqqblog.wordpress.com/
    https://ikutqq.wixsite.com/agenbandarq
    https://ikutqq.wixsite.com/bandarq
    https://ikutqq.yolasite.com/
    http://ikutqq.weebly.com/
    http://agenbandarq.zohosites.com/
    http://agenbandarqonline.webs.com/
    http://agenbandarq.bravesites.com/
    http://ikutqq-blog.logdown.com/

    ReplyDelete
  27. https://daftarbandarqterbaik.blogspot.com/
    https://bandarq99.wordpress.com/
    https://bandarqq.wixsite.com/boyaqq
    https://bandarqq.wixsite.com/bandarq
    http://daftarbandarq.weebly.com/
    http://daftarbandarq.slidi.net/
    http://bandar-qq.ml/
    http://bandar-qq.ga/
    http://bandar-qq.cf/
    http://bandar-qq.gq/

    ReplyDelete
  28. Yuk Gabung Di Bolacasino88.com
    Dapatkan Promo Deposit 100% Sportsbook
    Minimal Deposit Promo 100% Sportsbook Rp 300.000
    Maksimal Bonus Sampai Rp 500.000
    Dapatkan Juga Promo Menarik Lain nya !!!

    Untuk Informasi Lebih Lanjut Silahkan Hubungi CS Kami Di :

    - No Tlp ( +855962671826 )
    - BBM ( 2BF2F87E )
    - Yahoo ( cs_bolacasino88 )
    - WhatsApp ( +855962671826 )

    Baca Juga Prediksi Togel Tanggal 21 October 2017 :

    http://prediksitoto.online/bocoran-togel-sgp-21-okt-2017/
    http://prediksitoto.online/prediksi-jitu-hk-21-okt-2017/
    http://prediksitoto.online/prediksi-jitu-sydney-21-okt-2017/
    http://prediksitoto.online/prediksi-top-milan-21-oktober-2017/
    http://prediksitoto.online/prediksi-top-pattaya-21-okt-2017/
    http://prediksitoto.online/prediksi-top-genting-21-oktober-2017/
    http://prediksitoto.online/prediksi-top-magnum-21-okt-2017/

    ReplyDelete
  29. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    dewa poker

    ReplyDelete
  30. I am actually amazed with your initiatives as well as actually pleased to see this post.
    Affordable Gurgaon Escorts Roshanikhanna
    Female Escorts Services in Gurgaon

    ReplyDelete

  31. Daftar dan buktikan pelayanan yang super cepat dari kami
    Hanya dengan 10 ribu rupiah saja kalian bisa memainkan semua game yang ada di website kami
    Untuk info dan keluhan silahkan hubungi Customer Service kami yang siap melayani
    selama 24 jam full tanpa henti

    JUDI POKER ONLINE UANG ASLI

    POKER ONLINE TERPERCAYA

    BANDAR JUDI TOGEL ONLINE

    TARUHAN JUDI BOLA

    FILM BOKEP

    ReplyDelete
  32. Mari Boskuu...
    hanya Butuh 1 ID dan Anda Bisa Bermain 6 Permainan Di Sini.
    jadi Tunggu Apa lagi,, Ayo Bergabung Dan MenangKan Jutaan Rupiah.

    Jangan Ragu Dengan kami Di sini Kami MenjaminKan Pemainan Tanpa Robot.
    Ataupun Admin Kami Bermain Bersama anda.
    DI sini kami Fairplay, 100% Player VS player.
    Poker Aman Dan Terpercaya Hanya Bersama Gadispoker.
    Kami Juga Menyediakan Bermacam Promo untuk Para Member Setia Kami.

    -Bonus Deposit Setiap hari Untuk Para member.
    -Bonus Refferal 10% Seumur Hidup.
    -Bonus TO/Turn Over Up TO 0,3% - 0,5%
    - Hadiah Jackpot Puluhan Jutaan Rupiah
    Kalian Juga Akan Di layani dengan CS Kami Yang Ramah dan Sangat propesional.
    Selama 24jam Nonstop,
    JAdi Jangan Berpikir panjang lagi mari Bergabung bersama Gadispoker dan Di tunggu Kemenangannya,
    Untuk Info Lebih lanjut Silakan hubungi CS (custumer Service).
    -Live chat ( gadispoker )
    -Whatsapp : +855966624192
    -Skype : Gadispoker
    -Yahoo : gadispokercs
    -BBM : D8C893A4
    -Line : gadispoker-cs
    Hubungi Segera Dan Jangan Lewatkan Kemenanganmu..!
    agen judi poker online terpercaya di indonesia

    bandar judi poker online yang paling aman

    taruhan judi poker online terpercaya

    poker online

    judi poker

    dewa poker

    raja poker

    gadispoker

    judi poker online terbesar

    judi poker online yang aman dan terpercaya

    bandar poker online indonesia

    judi dewa poker terbaik indonesia

    agen poker online indonesia

    poker online betting

    poker online terbaik

    ReplyDelete
  33. Articles that are very interesting and I really like your thoughts in article writing is very extraordinary.
    raja poker

    ReplyDelete
  34. We are the company http://www.unitedcheckcashing.com providing you the best services about unitedcheckcashing.com within a short period. In USA you may find us everywhere, every city and 24/7. We actually love to oblige you the best things with 100% agreements and faster ever.
    check cashing

    ReplyDelete
  35. your article is really good, visit also my article in: dewa poker

    ReplyDelete
  36. Here are several of the websites we advocate for our visitors
    AgenQQ
    AduQ
    Agen BandarQ

    ReplyDelete
  37. Really nice post in this site..
    Domino99



    Amazing posting. I like it and keep doing goods.
    Agen Domino99



    So impresive posting like this.. Thanks sharing.
    Agen Poker

    ReplyDelete
  38. I am looking for sites with useful information and well crafted article. Your write-ups about motivation are excellent with deep information and perception. Also the discussion with readers is vital. We will await the new blogpost. Many thanks.
    judi online capsa
    judi capsa online
    judi online capsa susun

    ReplyDelete
  39. This is an awesome for reading and you really found the valued in this topic.
    Judi Online ceme
    Bandar Ceme Indonesia
    Situs judi Ceme Online

    ReplyDelete
  40. Thank you information that you have brought, very interesting, please visit our website
    Agen BandarQ
    BandarQQ Online
    Agen Sakong Online

    ReplyDelete
  41. This is amazing publish and you are showing so amazing what it really your information.this type of publish I always want and really these times is available at your web web page. Independent Female Escort Service in Gurgaon, Gurgaon Escort Service | Beautiful Escort in Gurgaon, Gurgaon Escorts Service | Independent Gurgaon Escort Service, Model Escort in Gurgaon | Independent Escort in Gurgaon

    ReplyDelete
  42. I am looking for sites with useful information and well crafted article. Your write-ups about motivation are excellent with deep information and perception. Also the discussion with readers is vital. We will await the new blogpost. Many thanks.
    capsa susun

    ReplyDelete
  43. Simply wish to say your materials are as amazing. The understanding on this publish is just outstanding and i can believe you are an professional on this topic.
    Independent Escorts in Delhi |
    Royal Delhi Escorts Service |
    Delhi Hot Babes

    ReplyDelete
  44. I was very impressed by this post, this site has always been pleasant news. Thank you very much for such an interesting post. Keep working, great job! In my free time, I like play game
    togelpelangi




    ReplyDelete
  45. your article is really good, visit also my article in: dewa poker

    ReplyDelete


  46. want to read this interesting article for this month immediately click my article and get a great experience after reading my article on:
    togel online

    ReplyDelete

  47. want to read this interesting article for this month immediately click my article and get a great experience after reading my article on:
    dewa poker

    ReplyDelete
  48. is very fond of this article because it gives a lot of inspiration thanks poker online

    ReplyDelete
  49. It’s really a great and useful piece of information. I’m glad that you just shared this helpful information with us.

    ReplyDelete
  50. very interesting content of this article give inspiration thanks agen judi poker online terpercaya di indonesia

    ReplyDelete
  51. Interesting post in this site.. Has interesting ideas and is very usefull.
    Bandar Ceme

    Ceme Online

    Ceme Terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  52. Thank you for this helpful information, keep on providing the best information
    Agen Poker

    DewaPoker

    PokerDewa

    Bandar Ceme

    ReplyDelete
  53. This is really very nice blog and so informative, It give us lots of interest and pleasure.
    Domino99
    DominoBet
    Agen Poker

    ReplyDelete
  54. Nice post, Thanks a lot of for share the informative and useful blog.
    Daftar BandarQ
    Domino99
    DominoQQ

    ReplyDelete
  55. This is very educating post, thanks for sharing with us.
    Tips Menang AduQ
    Tips Bermain AduQ

    ReplyDelete
  56. This is really very nice blog and so informative, It give us lots of interest and pleasure.
    DominoBet
    Agen Poker
    Domino99

    Nice post, Thanks a lot of for share the informative and useful blog.
    DominoQQ
    Domino99
    Daftar BandarQ

    ReplyDelete
  57. very good article, do not forget to visit other interesting articles at:situs judi terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  58. Interesting post in this site.. Has interesting ideas and is very usefull.
    Bandar Ceme

    Ceme Online

    Ceme Terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  59. Thank you for this helpful information, keep on providing the best information
    Agen Poker

    DewaPoker

    PokerDewa

    Bandar Ceme

    ReplyDelete
  60. It was really a great information thanks for sharing.
    Daftar BandarQ
    Domino99
    DominoQQ

    Thanks for sharing this great article
    AduQ
    BandarQ
    Daftar BandarQ

    ReplyDelete
  61. Thank you Information that you convey is very useful, waiting for the next update friend, Greetings Success :)
    sanadomino

    ReplyDelete
  62. Thank you Information that you convey is very useful, waiting for the next update friend, Greetings Success :)
    dewa poker

    ReplyDelete
  63. This is really very nice blog and so informative, It give us lots of interest and pleasure.
    Domino99
    DominoBet
    Agen Poker

    ReplyDelete
  64. Nice post, Thanks a lot of for share the informative and useful blog.
    Daftar BandarQ
    Domino99
    DominoQQ

    ReplyDelete
  65. Thanks for sharing amazing information !!!!!!
    Please keep up sharing.

    ReplyDelete
  66. Thanks for giving me the useful information. I think I need it!
    Domino99
    DominoBet
    Agen Poker

    ReplyDelete
  67. is very fond of this article because it gives a lot of inspiration thanks bandar judi poker online yang paling aman

    ReplyDelete
  68. This is really very nice blog and so informative. Thanks a lot for sharing this article. BandarQ
    The information which you people are given are really good, These look really great. BandarQQ
    This is great, you are good, i like your post and i still waiting our next pos Agen BandarQ
    Thanks for giving me the useful information. I think I need it! BandarQ Online
    Thanks for sharing, this is a fantastic blog article.Thanks Again. Really Great. Situs BandarQ
    This is great, you are good, i like your post and i still waiting our next post Daftar BandarQ

    ReplyDelete
  69. very interesting content of this article give inspiration thanks taruhan judi poker online terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  70. very interesting content of this article give inspiration thanks taruhan judi poker online terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  71. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  72. This is really very nice blog and so informative. Thanks a lot for sharing this article. BandarQ
    The information which you people are given are really good, These look really great. BandarQQ
    This is great, you are good, i like your post and i still waiting our next post Agen BandarQ
    Thanks for giving me the useful information. I think I need it! BandarQ Online
    Thanks for sharing, this is a fantastic blog article.Thanks Again. Really Great. Situs BandarQ
    Nice Post, and good Information for this site. Thanks for shared!! Daftar BandarQ

    ReplyDelete
  73. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  74. The articles and posts are very interesting I really like what you think of something new and hopefully the future will be better :)
    bandar judi online

    ReplyDelete
  75. It’s really a great and useful piece of information. I’m glad that you just shared this helpful information with us.
    Please stay us informed like this. Thanks for sharing. ??

    SBOBET
    Maxbet
    Agen Bola
    Agen Bola Terpercaya
    Poker Online Indonesia Terpercaya
    Poker Online Indonesia
    Agen Poker Online
    Poker Online
    DellPoker
    DellPoker
    pokergalaxy

    ReplyDelete
  76. good article I am very happy to read this article thanks.
    judi poker

    ReplyDelete
  77. amazing content of this article inspiring many thanks bandar judi poker online yang paling aman

    ReplyDelete
  78. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    poker online

    ReplyDelete
  79. many articles provide important and inspiring information thanks agen judi poker online terpercaya di indonesia

    ReplyDelete
  80. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    aladinqq

    ReplyDelete
  81. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    aladinqq

    ReplyDelete
  82. is very fond of this article because it gives a lot of inspiration thanks raja poker


    ReplyDelete
  83. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    aladinqq

    ReplyDelete
  84. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    http://www.qqaladin.com/

    ReplyDelete
  85. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    aladinqq

    ReplyDelete
  86. is very fond of this article because it gives a lot of inspiration thanks bandar judi poker online yang paling aman

    ReplyDelete
  87. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    judi poker online yang aman dan terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  88. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    judi poker online yang aman dan terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  89. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    aladinqq

    ReplyDelete
  90. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    bandar poker online terpercaya di indonesia

    ReplyDelete
  91. Awesome write-up. I’m a normal visitor of your web site and appreciate you taking the time to maintain the nice site. I will be a regular visitor for a really long time.
    Gurgaon Escort Services
    Escort Services in MahipalPur

    ReplyDelete
  92. interesting articles and this is my first first reading a very interesting article thanks for this article that fits with the theme news.
    http://www.badoqq.com/

    ReplyDelete
  93. very interesting content of this article give inspiration thanksraja poker

    ReplyDelete
  94. is very fond of this article because it gives a lot of inspiration thanks poker online

    ReplyDelete

  95. many articles provide important and inspiring information thanks raja poker

    ReplyDelete

  96. very interesting content of this article give inspiration thanks agen judi poker online terpercaya di indonesia

    ReplyDelete
  97. DUITPOKER.COM AGEN POKER ONLINE PENIPU 100% TIDAK TERPERCAYA
    Fix Agen Situs Poker dominoqq Online Penipu
    WASPADA !! DUITPOKER.COM adalah website judi POKER DAN dominoqq PENIPU DI INDONESIA, website ini adalah website penipu, mereka menipu player atau pemain judi . sudah banyak player yang tertipu dengan website tersebut. DAN MEREKA JUDI MENIPU PARA MARKETING, MEREKA PURA-PURA MENYEWA SEORANG MARKETING UNTUK MEMASARKAN WEBSITE DUITPOKER.COM MELALUI SOSIAL MEDIA MAUPUN FORUM-FORUM DAN LAIN SEBAGAINYA, DAN MARKETING DI JANJIKAN DI BAYAR SETIAP 1 BULAN. RUPANYA SETELAH 1 BULAN MEREKA KABUR DAN SEOLAH-OLAH TIDAK PERNAH MENYEWA MARKETING, DAN DENGAN BANYAK ALASAN MEMBUAT MARKETING CAPEK MINTA BAYARAN, AKHIRNYA MEREKA GAK BAYAR..

    HATI-HATI BAGI ANDA YANG MARKETINGKAN DAN PLAYER DI WEBSITE INI. ANDA JUGA BAKAL GAK DI BAYAR, DAN JANGAN PERCAYA ORANG YANG MENGOMENTARI REVIEW INI. KARENA BISA SAJA MEREKA ADALAH SURUHAN DARI WEB DUITPOKER.COM. INGAT BERHATI-HATILAH, WEBSITE INI ADALAH PENIPUAN, YANG MENIPU MEMBER JUGA PARA PEKERJA MARKETING.






    MODUS TERBARU :
    • Penggelapan dana member sebesar 9jt dengan alasan pemblokiran rekening
    • dana member di hack dan tidak ada tanggung jawab dari pihak agen duitpoker
    1. DUITPOKER.COM

    “www.duitpoker.com asli penipu sy main dan menang begitu WD tdk bisa dan saat mau login tdk bisa tau2 bgitu diberikan pasword baru sy masuk koin sdh 0 sy tanya katanya sudah dipakai main,,,duitpoker anjing”


    “wah saya juga kena tipu di duitpoker.com, mereka gak membayar padahal saya masuk daftar pemenang tapi sampai sekarang gak dikonfirmasi, di email gak dibalas-balas.. :) penipu...”


    DUITPOKER.COM WEB JUDI PENIPU, duitpoker penipu, duitpoker penipu, web judi penipu, penipuan web judi, agen web judi penipu di indonesia, agen judi penipu di indonesia, dominoqq penipu, agen dominoqq penipu, bandar dominoqq penipu.



    Bagaimana Cara Agen Situs Poker dominoqq Online Menipu Membernya?
    Kamu mungkin bertanya tanya bagaiman suatu situs dapat menipu para membernya. Sebab tampilan semua situs judi online umumnya sama saja, sulit untuk memebedakannya dengan situs judi terpercaya bila kamu masih awam. Terdapat beberapa cara bagi agen judi untuk melakukan kecurangan poker online pada para membernya. Cara cara yang paling sering dijumpai adalah sebagai berikut :
    Tidak membayar penarikan dana membernya.
    Admin dari situs tersebut ikut bermain di meja sehingga member sulit menang.
    Credit yang ada di dalam akun hilang sedikit demi sedikit tanpa alasan yang jelas.
    Berhati hatilah bila di tempat mu bermain terdapat indikasi indikasi kecurangan diatas. Tentu akan sangat mengesalkan bila terdapat situs poker uang asli penipu karena kita memerlukan uang sungguhan untuk bermain.
    Ciri Ciri Situs Poker Penipu
    situs poker penipu
    Dengan begitu banyak situs yang memiliki pelayanan yang buruk dan penipu, tentu akan sulit untuk menghindarinya. Kami yakin, sebelum mendapatkan situs judi online terpercaya seperti yang ada di halaman utama kamu akan sering menemui situs penipu. Berikut kami memberikan ciri ciri dari agen agen yang melakukan kecurangan poker online :

    • Customer service yang tidak professional dan lambat.
    • Umur situs yang masih baru atau dibawah 1 tahun.
    • Minimal deposit terlalu rendah.
    • Bonus besar yang diluar logika (berlebihan).
    • Proses dana baik deposit maupun withdraw lama.
    • Terdapat bot ataupun admin yang bermain di meja.
    • Tidak membarui situsnya secara berkala.
    • Akun tidak bisa dibuka /di Hack (pelakunya terkadang adminnya sendiri)
    Dengan memperhatikan hal hal tersebut kami jamin kalau kamu akan terhindar dari situs poker online penipu. Tentu dengan bermain di situs yang terindikasi terdapat kecurangan judi online akan merusak pengalaman mu dalam bermain perjudian online.

    DUITPOKER.COM AGEN POKER ONLINE PENIPU 100% TIDAK TERPERCAYA

    ReplyDelete

  98. many articles provide important and inspiring information thanks dewa poker

    ReplyDelete
  99. It’s really a great and useful piece of information. I’m glad that you just shared this helpful information with us.
    Please stay us informed like this. Thanks for sharing. ??

    Agen Bola
    Agen Bola Terpercaya
    Poker Online Indonesia
    Poker Online Uang Asli
    Poker Uang Asli
    Agen Poker Online
    Poker Online
    IngatPoker
    Axioobet
    Axioobet
    Axioopoker
    Situs Judi Poker QQ Online Terpercaya
    kupoblogger

    ReplyDelete
  100. After I read and try to understand this article and finally amazing.
    we are all grateful for the existence of this article can add even more insight for us all
    thank you
    sbobet

    ReplyDelete
  101. After I read and try to understand this article and finally amazing.
    we are all grateful for the existence of this article can add even more insight for us all
    thank you
    prediksi bola

    ReplyDelete
  102. http://www.gadisjp.com/ref.php?ref=CSGADIS555

    ReplyDelete
  103. Cari Agen PokerOnline Banyak Bonus Extra??
    http://www.badoqq.com/

    ReplyDelete



  104. many articles provide important and inspiring information thanks
    mgmdomino

    ReplyDelete
  105. DOMPETCASINO SITUS JUDI ONLINE CASINO ONLINE DAN SABUNG AYAM

    Situs judi online saat ini sudah menjadi hal yang sangat banyak di jumpai di dunia internet. Salah satu permainan judi online yang paling digemari saat ini adalah poker online dan casino online. Oleh sebab itu kini hadir situs judi poker dan dominoqq online yang bernama Dompetcasino. Kami kini ikut hadir untuk membantu memenuhi permintaan para pejudi online. Dompetcasino sendiri juga menyediakan 7 jenis games yang bisa anda mainkan cukup dengan 1 User ID saja. Game tersebut adalah sabung ayam, baccarat, sicbo, rulette, dragon tiger, slot game dan casino online. Permainan yang kami sediakan tentunya cukup lengkap dong ya.

    PELAYANAN TERBAIK SITUS JUDI ONLINE DOMPETCASINO

    Untuk menjadi sebuah situs judi online yang berkualitas, tentunya pelayanan yang kita berikan juga tidak perlu dipertanyakan lagi. Karena kami Dompetcasino selalu berusaha memberikan yang terbaik untuk member kami. Jika tanpa member setia yang bermain Bersama kami, kami tidak ada apa apanya. Karena itu, bagi kami setiap member adalah raja bagi kami. Oleh sebab itu kami menyediakan layanan livechat dan CS 24jam nonstop. CS yang kami sediakan juga siap melayani semua keluhan atau pun saran anda. Mulai dari persoalan transaksi,games mulai dari poker online hingga casino online. Intinya adalah CS kami bersedia membantu anda kapan pun dan apa pun permasalahan yang anda hadapi.

    PENAWARAN BONUS JUDI ONLINE CASINO ONLINE DAN SABUNG AYAM

    Kami juga memberikan beberapa jenis bonus untuk member kami. Hal tersebut tentu saja sebagai komitmen buat member kami yang sudah sangat setia bermain Bersama kami. Bonus tersebut seperti bonus cashback 2%. Kami juga menawarkan bonus referral sebesar 2%. Bonus referral bisa di dapatkan dengan mengajak teman anda bermain di situs judi online Dompetcasino. Bonus referral akan masuk secara otomatis ke akun anda setiap teman anda bermain. Jadi apalagi yang anda tunggu? Ayo coba peruntungan anda hari ini dan menang sebanyak-banyaknya di Dompetcasino. Mari daftar sekarang dengan menekan tombol daftar di atas atau menguhubungi livechat kami. Dompetcasino situs judi online, casino online dan casino online terbaik di Indonesia.

    casino online
    situs judi
    judi online terpecaya
    sabung ayam online
    dompetcasino
    situs poker
    poker online

    ReplyDelete
  106. Poker online | Poker Uang Asli | Situs Poker | Agen Poker
    Dompetpoker Adalah Situs Agen Judi Poker Online Uang Asli Dengan Server Terbaik,Permainan Poker 7 game Dalam 1 Website Bermain Poker Uang Asli Dengan Kualitas Server Terbaik Serta Tampilan Terbaru Hanya Di DompetPoker. Agen Poker Yang Memberikan Jaminan Keamanan Dalam Bermain Poker Online Tanpa Bot, Admin Serta Kami Selalu Memberikan Pelayanan Terbaik Selama 24 Jam Setiap Harinya, Kini Semua Member Dapat Bermain Agen Poker Online | Domino QQ | Ceme Keliling | Live Poker | Capsa Susun Kapan Pun Dan Di manapun Karena Kami Menyediakan Aplikasi Android Dan Iphone Sehingga Anda Dapat Bermain Dewa Poker Di SmartPhone Anda.
    dompetpoker tbk adalah site/situs agen judi poker online uang asli dengan server terbaik di dukung oleh customer service yang sopan dan ramah
    DOMPET POKER ADALAH SITUS POKER ONLINE TERPERCAYA DAN TERBAIK DI INDONESIA ID-ID YANG MENYAJIKAN 6 PERMAINAN DALAM 1 WEBSITE. – POKER UANG ASLI – LIVE POKER – CEME – CEME KELILING – DOMINO QQ – CAPSA SUSUN.
    Proses Deposit withdraw Mudah dan cepat, tidak bertele – tele (wd tidak ada batas). Segera daftarkan diri di Dompetpoker.com dan ajak kerabat bermain bersama kami & ada bonus referal. Kami Melakukan Dengan Transaksi Cepat, Mudah, Aman & Terpercaya. Agen DOMPET POKER bermain 100% FAIRPLAY dan Tidak Ada BOT, Jika Ada, Uang Kami Kembalikan Full
    poker online
    agen poker
    agen poker terbaik
    agen poker terpercaya
    poker uang asli
    situs poker

    ReplyDelete


  107. is very fond of this article because it gives a lot of inspiration thanks dewa poker

    ReplyDelete

  108. amazing content of this article inspiring many thanks
    raja poker

    ReplyDelete
  109. very interesting content of this article give inspiration thanks poker online

    ReplyDelete
  110. Bosan Kalah Bermain Judi Online ?
    Mari bergabung bersama kami dan rasakan sensasi kemenngan bersama www.pokergadis.com
    Kami juga menyediakan berbagai bonus bagi para member setia kami:
    1. WELCOME BONUS NEW MEMBER 20%
    2. BONUS DEPOSIT SETIAP HARI 10%
    3. BONUS TURN OVER 0,5%
    4. BONUS REFFERAL 15% SEUMUR HIDUP
    5. HADIAH JACKPOT PULUHAN JUTAAN RUPIAH BERSAMA GADISPOKER
    Untuk keteragan lebih lanjut silakan di klik link aternatif kami:
    http://www.pokergadis.net/ref.php?ref=CSGADIS555
    agen judi poker online terpercaya di indonesia

    bandar judi poker online yang paling aman

    taruhan judi poker online terpercaya

    poker online

    judi poker

    dewa poker

    raja poker

    gadispoker

    judi poker online terbesar

    judi poker online yang aman dan terpercaya

    bandar poker online indonesia

    judi dewa poker terbaik indonesia

    agen poker online indonesia

    poker online betting

    poker online terbaik

    ReplyDelete
  111. Bermain poker secara online bukan berarti bahwa kita bisa bermain dengan lebih mudah. Memang kepraktisan dan penggunaan waktu menjadi keunggulan dari sistem bermain poker online. bandarq online

    ReplyDelete
  112. Seperti dari pengertian dai poker online kami akan kasi tahu jenis kartu yang anda dalam permainan poker online . judi online

    ReplyDelete
  113. Dengan kartu tangan ini terdiri dari 5 kartu yamg berurutan dan semua memiliki bunga yang sama . dan jika terdapat 2 kartu straight flush dalam. qq online

    ReplyDelete
  114. Dengan kartu di tangan yang terdiri dari 3 kartu dengan nilai yang sama . apabila dalam suatu permainan terdapat 2 pemain . situs judi poker

    ReplyDelete
  115. Dengan kartu di tangan yang terdiri dari 5 kartu dengan bunga yang sama dan jika terdapat 2 flush dalam satu permainan. situs poker online

    ReplyDelete
  116. berbeda lagi dengan kartu Straight Flush . itu kartu susunannya tidak terdiri dengan bunga yang sama . situs judi bandarq online terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  117. Dengan kartu yang ada di tangan ini terdiri dari sepasang kartu yang dengan nilai yang sama . Situs Judi Online Agen Poker QQ dan Bandarq Terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  118. maka sih pemain yang memiliki sepasang kartu dengan nilai yang tertinggi adalah sih pemenangnya . judi bandarq

    ReplyDelete
  119. dengan situasi ini , kartu dengan nilai yang tertinggi adalah satu-satunya kartu memiliki makna . domino 99

    ReplyDelete
  120. Permainan BandarQ Online adalah permainan judi yang merupakan bagian dari judi kartu domino dan dimana para pemain berganti mendapatkan kesempatan untuk menjadi banda secara yang bergantian . judi bandarq terpercaya

    ReplyDelete
  121. juga dalam sisi taruhan yang anda gunakan anda juga tidak akan bisa bermain judi BandarQ online kalau anda tidak bermain secara online . situs judi

    ReplyDelete
  122. bahkan jika anda sedang kalah belum tentu anda rugi apabila anda mengetahui cara mengolah uang anda. domino qq

    ReplyDelete
  123. Biarpun kemenangan yang anda dapatkan kecil, tetapi cara ini 100% ampuh. Yang perlu anda lakukan adalah menyiapkan modal lebih dan bermain. trik main judi online

    ReplyDelete